| 国际贸易实务
课程资源
第二章国际贸易实务-国际贸易合同中的标的物
发布人:admin 时间:2019-5-4 已被浏览 10

 

Chapter Two

Subject Matter of an International Sales Contract

国际贸易合同中的标的物

(商品的品名、质量、数量和包装)

 

1.   What will be learned

 

2. Objectives:

After studying this unit, students should:

-learn the importance of name of goods and HS code.

-understand the quality of goods as well as how to use quality clause.

-master the unit, measurement and metrology of quantity as well as how to put quantity clause in a strict way

-understand basic knowledge in terms o

Name of Goods

Quality of Goods

Quantity of Goods

Packing & Marking

              The clause

              Significance

              Describing   methods

              Quality clause

              The significance

              The calculation

              Quantity clause

              The nature of   packing

              Types of packing

              Packaging

              Product code

              Neutral packing & manufacturing brand-name goods

              Packing clause

f packing such as types of packing, clause of packing-know information of marking and the importance of product code

3. Teaching procedures:

first section90 min

(name of goods, quality of goods and quantity of goods)

second section90 min

(packing and marking)

4. Difficulties and Key points:

methods describing quality of goods

measurement of weight(calculation)

product code

 

TERM EXPLAINATION:

标的:是指合同当事人之间存在的权利义务关系。

标的物:是指当事人双方权利义务指向的对象。

 

 

1.Name of Goods品名

DEFINITION

SIGNIFICANCE

METHODS OF NOMINATION

CONTENT OF THE CLAUSE

ATTENTION

 

2.Quality of Goods品质

CONTENT OF QUALITY

SIGNIFICANCE

CASE STUDY: 冻北京鸭

在有着伊斯兰教信仰的人的眼中,屠宰最重要的一点是对被屠宰动物的一种尊敬,让他们痛苦减少;除此之外还体现了我们人道屠宰方面一种实施,当然现在的屠宰方式都是通过机械式屠宰,无痛苦的方式屠宰,让动物在无痛苦的情况下实行屠宰的方式,像上文当中提到的屠宰牛羊必翻倒在地的方式,屠宰设备当中也体现了这一点,如气动翻板箱等此类的屠宰机械。对于伊斯兰教的屠宰方式介绍这么多,大概主体内容就这么多,当然可能不太全面。只是详细描述等方面,如了解详细内容就到伊斯兰教屠宰法规中查询。

我们都知道穆斯林人进餐都是相当有讲究的,他们如果屠宰畜禽的所谓的屠夫必须也得是一个有着伊斯兰信仰的人。这里说的信仰不是说一个回族的人就可以,他们主要以真主(在他们眼里也称作是神)的名义来屠宰,虽说这么简单,但是如果不是宗教信仰的或者根本不是伊斯兰教的人,他们根本不知道一只动物从哪里宰,先宰哪里,后宰哪里,从哪个部位下刀,在伊斯兰教当中所谓屠宰就是用锋利的工具切断畜禽的气管还有两条静脉。

除了这几点以外还有就是他们宰的动物的种类:

伊斯兰教把动物屠宰的种类可以分为两种:

我们经常听说的就是可以吃肉的动物,再就是不可吃肉的,当然可以吃肉的动物也分为两种也是我们最常见到的,那就是有血的动物(像畜禽):在伊斯兰教当中血是不可以食用的,他们对于有血的动物有关规定是相当严谨的,有地上跑的,还有水游的、没有血的动物(像鱼):穆圣说过:水是洁净的,动物是合法的这一点相对于我们无宗教信仰的人来说相对而言比较啰嗦的!

    我们经常能听到很多人谈起回族人不吃猪肉,说猪是他们的祖先,其实除了猪肉,还有狗肉,再就是像一些野兽,野禽,他们也是规定不可以食用的,但是在屠宰过后,他们的肉和皮毛都是干净的,可以充分的应用到各个方面,对于肉来说,他们是不会吃的。如果这些动物是自然死掉的,在他们眼里这些动物是污秽的,主要是因为动物体内的血是污秽的。像这些动物如果是自然死掉的(前提是没经过屠宰),那么在他们眼里都是污秽的。

    下面说一下伊斯兰教对于屠宰者(屠夫)的一些规定。他们规定屠夫必须是理智的,并且是具有分析能力的判断能力的穆斯林人,当然也可以是犹太教的或者是基督教的,如果他们这些人来按照他们的伊斯兰教有关屠宰规定来屠宰,那么这些动物经屠宰后的肉是合法的,并且可以食用。像一些孩子,没有什么理智和分析判断能力的他们是不能参加屠宰的。最重要的一点就是:信仰多个宗教的人也不能进行屠宰。

    伊斯兰教特别规定不能食用的动物,只要是通过他们那里屠宰方式屠宰,屠宰后的动物都是可以食用的,也就是说除了猪、狗再就是一些野兽和带爪子的飞禽类就算是合法屠宰,他们也是不能食用的。再就是被屠宰的动物如果是死掉的,也是不可以的,即使屠宰完后也是不合法的,也是不可以被人们所食用的。还有一点就是像怀孕的动物,比说如羊,他们是可以屠宰的,在他们眼里,如果如屠宰了大羊,也就等于屠宰了小羊,并且是可以食用的。如果在不允许打猎的地方捕到的动物是不可以屠宰和食用的。

    再就是我们经常听说伊斯兰教屠宰的时候他们口中都念经一样,念什么法规,其实他们是在念太斯米法规。法规的内容是:如果你们确信真主的迹像,那么,你们应当吃诵真主之名而宰的,你们不要吃那未诵真主之名而宰的,那确是犯罪。在这其中不能提念非真主的名字,如果念了别的名称,那么动物也是不能食用的。那么屠宰的时候什么时候才能念太斯米呢?念太斯米时应掌握在屠宰前的那一刹那,也就是说,念完太斯米后,手起刀落,如果不按这种方式,那么按照无太斯米者处理。那么这个太斯米在屠宰的时候应该由谁来念呢?他们规定:只能由屠宰者亲自来念,也就是说是本人来念,如果用其他方式念都不符合合法屠宰,这是不允许的。并让这被屠宰的动物面朝格卜赖”——“克尔白的位置才可以进行屠宰的。骆驼的屠宰方法和其他的动物是不一样的。先把驼的左脚绊起来,使骆驼朝着格卜赖,分别从斯脖颈下部和胸部进行屠宰,这一点与其他的动物是不同的;其次是,在屠宰中要切断喉咙、食管及两静脉。仅切断其中的三根也可以。假如是从动物的背面宰,切断了脊髓,导致动物在切断所要求的几根脉管之前就死去了,那么,其肉不可以吃。从背后屠宰是可憎的行为,由于这样做无疑是对动物的惩罚,增加了所宰物的痛苦,是不符合伊斯兰教的仁爱精神的;屠宰的速度一定要快。只有这样才能使被宰物减轻痛苦。穆圣曾说:真主为每一件事物都划定了期限。当你们了结时,应很好地了结;当你们屠宰时,应很好的屠宰——你们要将刀磨快,让其所宰物轻松(地断气)他们都是一刀结果动物的必命的,从不下第二刀;不要宰后当即剥皮。也就是说,最好不要在被宰物身体及各部位休止抽动之前就开始剥皮,或者断肢。伊斯兰教是一个讲求仁慈万物的宗教,所有的教法划定也都含有仁爱的精神;总之,穆斯林对肉食的要求是以养身益性、清洁卫生、合乎教规为尺度,而屠宰过程是其中非常重要的一个环节。所以,作为穆斯林应该真正懂得有关屠宰的法夫,以便按照伊斯兰教的有关划定执行。这样做不但能使穆斯林充分享用真主赐赉的佳美食物,同时更会使穆斯林吃得放心,吃得舒心。

METHODS OF DESCRIBING

A.        sales as seen (P23)看货买卖

B.        sales by sellers sample (P19)凭卖方样品买卖

*the quality of the bulk of the goods must be as goods as the quality of the sample

*it is suitable for commodities that are difficult to standardize and normalize, such as arts and crafts

 

i.e. Sample Y301 Teddy Bear Size 15

not every Teddy Bear toy can be measured (the size of ear, face, leg length, etc.)

ORIGINAL SAMPLE/TYPE SAMPLE are usually sent by the seller to the buyer, at the same time, DUPLICATE SAMPLE/KEEP SAMPLE are always kept b
y the seller for later reference.

RETURN SAMPLE/COUNTER SAMPLE are sent by the seller to the buyer if the seller fail to supply the goods in accordance with buyers sample, as a proposal for the buyers consideration. The sample of goods is in similar quality to the buyers sample.

C. sales by buyers sample凭买方样品买卖

d.sales by description

*sales by specifications (it is most widely used in international trade)规格

*sales by grade等级

CASE STUDY:

买方有拒付的权利,既然合同及来证上均写的提供三级品,出口商即应履约执行,所提供货物如为二级品,即使按三级计价,也构成违约,因为这样无疑会影响甚至破坏进口商与其买家的契约关系,会造成大家对品质级别划分的认别和认定,破坏供应链条上商家长期形成的贸易习惯,并发生重新整理的额外费用。

*sales by standard标准

FAQ/GMQ(in real practice, some concrete specifications are supplemented to these two terms as they are too broad and oversimplified.)

*sales by description and illustration说明书和图样

complex machines, electric equipment and instruments, etc.

*sales by brand or trade mark商标和品牌

*sales by name of origin or by geographical indication原产地

BRAND

TRADE MARK

 

QUALITY CLAUSE is subject to the method used in describing the subject matter of the contract

*     TOLERANCE CLAUSE机动幅度条款

*     QUALITY TOLERANCE 品质公差

 

QUESTION:

How to write the quality clause in a proper way in a sales contract?

 

3.Quantity of goods

SIGNIFICANCE

CALCULATION

by weight(重量:塑料、大米)/capacity(容量:液体)/numbers(数量:电视机)/length(长度:布)/area(面积:草皮)/volume(体积:天然气)

METROLOGY

Metric system/British system/US system/International System of Units

*China adopts the International System of Units(S.I)

CASE STUDY:

板书

公制:1 Metric ton=1000Kg

英制:1 Long ton=1016.5Kg

美制:1 short ton=907.2 Kg

 

1L/T=1016KG=1.0165*1000KG=1.0165M/T

10000L/T=10165M/T

 

短装:10165M/T-10000M/T=160.5M/T

160.5M/T*275USD=44137.5USD

(1USD=6.2CNY)

44137.5*6.2273,652.5CNY


UNIT OF MEASUREMENT

MEASUREMENT OF WEIGHT

 

*GROSS WEIGHT毛重=content+packing

*NET WEIGHT净重=gross weight-tare[tare->weight of the packing]

*CONDITIONAL WEIGHT公量=dry weight干量+standard moisture content标准水量=干量+干量*标准回潮率=干量*1+标准回潮率)

(wool, cotten, raw silk)

 

 

 

CASE STUDY

板书:

标准回潮率=标准含水量÷干量

公量=干量+标准回潮率×干量

=干量*1+标准回潮率)

=8M/T*1.11

=8.88M/T


 

*THEORITAL WEIGHT理论重量=unit weight*total number

*LEGAL WEIGHT法定重量=net weight+direct packing (inner packing)

 

COMPARISON:

legal weight versus gross weight

legal weight: for tax calculation , inner packing

gross weight: whole packing

 

QUALITY CLAUSE

*CONTENT: Specific quantity(i.e. 10000), unit of measurement(M/T) and method of measurement(Net weight), if necessary

i.e.Net weight 10000 M/T

 

*More or Less Clause:

i.e.Net weight 10000 M/T with 5% more or less

 

*Approximately or About

i.e.Net weight about 10000 M/T

This kind of indefinite wording will give rise to dispute and should be avoided.

 

*Disputes caused by more or less

CASE STUDY

板书:

25T(25000KG)÷150016.6KG

16.6KG×1500=24900KG

25000KG-24900KG=100KG(余下100KG可以不补交)

 

20KG-16.6KG=3.4KG

3.4KG×1500=5100KG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Packing &Marking

1.PACKING

SIGNIFICANCE

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NATURE OF PACKING

TYPES OF PACKING

    Transport packing / outer packing / large packing

    Packaging / Selling packing / inner packing / small packing

CASE STUDY:

板书:

1)BY WEIGHT

20feet:可装17.5M/T

17.5M/T(17500KG)÷53KG330

330×8=2640

 

40feet:可装25M/T

25M/T(25000KG)÷53KG471

471×8=3768

 

2)BY VOLUME

20feet:可装25M3

25M3÷0.54×0.44×0.4)263

263×8=2104

 

40feet:可装55M3

55M3÷0.54×0.44×0.4)578

578×8=4624

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.MARKING

*SHIPPING MAKRS

*OTHER MARKS

 

3. PRODUCT CODE

*UPC

*ENA \  IAN

 

4.NEUTRAL PACKING

 

5.CLAUSE OF PACKING

CASE STUDY

          : 1)凡是有关由客户提供的包装标签、吊牌、各种辅料等,均应在合同条款上明确规定到达我方的时间,并规定如不能按时到达而导致我方不能按时交货,应由对方负责并承担经济损失。

        2)今后在与外商签订或修改合同时应坚持作出书面协议。

        3)要确定客户派来的代表,是否有权变更合同条款。

        4)我方应该通过协商的办法要求对方酌情承担我方损失,于情于理,我方都可以提出这项要求。

        5)不论从维护我方合法权益角度,还是从促进业务关系角度,都应注意合同的质量,把合同条款订得具体、严密和完善。

 

CASE STUDY2

          : 卖方未按合同规定包装货物,应视为违反合同。买方就卖方违反合同包装条款的行为提出异议并要求赔偿是合理的。

        但是,买方以此为由拒收货物是过分的要求。因为《公约》第50条第1款规定:买方只有在(卖方)完全不交付货物或不按合同规定交付货物等于根本违反合同时,才可以宣告整个合同无效。且第25条:一方当事人违反合同的结果,如使另一方当事人蒙受损害,以至于实际上剥夺了当事人根据合同规定有权期待得到的东西,即为根本违反合同。

         但事实上,卖方在交货发生困难的情况下,及时采取了补救措施。只要其所使用的塑料包装不对货物质量造成影响,这种措施就可视为合理的,虽仍属于违约行为,但并不构成根本违反合同。买方只能对塑料包装造成的运输、储存等方面的不便而发生的损失提出索赔,而不能拒收货物。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

1.       _______ of an international sales contract means the commodity circulating in international trade.

2.      Which of the following kinds of samples are sent by the seller to the buyer?

A.    representative samples

B.     original samples

C.     type samples

D.    return samples

E.     counter sample

6. Which of the following is(are)apt to sell by description or illustration?

A.    complex machines

B.     electric equipment

C.     electric instruments

7. When it comes to the quality of jewelry, paintings, arts, ______ usually is applied.

A. sales by samples                                 B. sales by grade    

C. sales by name of origin or by geographical indication    D. sales as seen

12. There are four metrologies commonly used in international trade: ______ system, the ______ System, the ______System and the ______System of Units

13. There are four metrologies commonly used in international trade. Which of them does China adopt?

A.     the metric system.

B.     the British System.

C.    the US System.

D.    the International System of Units.

15. Which of the following formula is correct?

A.     Gross weight-tare=net weight

B.     Theoretical weight=the weight of each unittotal number

C.    net weight +inner packing=legal weight

D.    Conditioned weight=dry weight+standard moisture content

17. While calculating commodities with regular specifications and regular size, which of the following measurement of weight is best applicable?

A. Net weight

B. Conditioned weight

C. Theoretical weight

D. Legal weight

25. A ______ is composed of a geometric figure, a simple identity code or initials. (shipping mark)

26. The following are four types of information included in shipping marks:

A.     The initial letters or abbreviation of a consignee or buyer;

B.     The reference number

C.    The destination

D.    The package number

 Examine the following shipping mark, put down A, B, C, D (stands for the types of information included in shipping marks) in the correspondent blanket:

 

(     )

 

ABCCO

                 

 

 

(    )

 

(    )

(    )

                New York

                SC789

                No.5-25

 

 

27. The following are four types of markings:

A.     indicative mark

B.     warning mark

C.    weight/ volume mark

D.    marks of origin

 Examine the following markings, and identify which types they belong to. Put down A, B, C, D(stands for the types of the marking) in the correspondent blanket.

(1) Liquid   (    )  (2) Keep Upright   (    )   (3) This Side Up   (    )   (4) Poison Gas   (    )

(5) Hazardous Article   (    )   (6) Gross Weight   55kgs   (    )   (7) MEASUREMENT  505060cm (    )   (8) Made in China   (    ) 

 

CHAPTER TWO

1.       _______ of an international sales contract means the commodity circulating in international trade. (The subject matter)

2.      Which of the following kinds of samples are sent by the seller to the buyer?(ABCDE)

A.    representative samples

B.     original samples

C.     type samples

D.    return samples

E.     counter sample

6. Which of the following is(are)apt to sell by description or illustration? (ABC)

A.    complex machines

B.     electric equipment

C.     electric instruments

7. When it comes to the quality of jewelry, paintings, arts, ______ usually is applied.(D)

A. sales by samples                                 B. sales by grade    

C. sales by name of origin or by geographical indication    D. sales as seen

12. There are four metrologies commonly used in international trade: ______ system, the ______ System, the ______System and the ______System of Units(metric, British, US, International)

13. There are four metrologies commonly used in international trade. Which of them does China adopt?(D)

A.     the metric system.

B.     the British System.

C.    the US System.

D.    the International System of Units.

15. Which of the following formula is correct?(ABCD)

A.     Gross weight-tare=net weight

B.     Theoretical weight=the weight of each unittotal number

C.    net weight +inner packing=legal weight

D.    Conditioned weight=dry weight+standard moisture content

17. While calculating commodities with regular specifications and regular size, which of the following measurement of weight is best applicable? (C)

A. Net weight

B. Conditioned weight

C. Theoretical weight

D. Legal weight

25. A ______ is composed of a geometric figure, a simple identity code or initials. (shipping mark)

26. The following are four types of information included in shipping marks: (A, C, B, D)

A.     The initial letters or abbreviation of a consignee or buyer;

B.     The reference number

C.    The destination

D.    The package number

 Examine the following shipping mark, put down A, B, C, D (stands for the types of information included in shipping marks) in the correspondent blanket:

 

(     )

 

ABCCO

                 

 

 

(    )

 

(    )

(    )

                New York

                SC789

                No.5-25

 

 

27. The following are four types of markings: (A,A,A,B,B,C,C,D)

A.     indicative mark

B.     warning mark

C.    weight/ volume mark

D.    marks of origin

 Examine the following markings, and identify which types they belong to. Put down A, B, C, D(stands for the types of the marking) in the correspondent blanket.

(1) Liquid   (    )  (2) Keep Upright   (    )   (3) This Side Up   (    )   (4) Poison Gas   (    )

(5) Hazardous Article   (    )   (6) Gross Weight   55kgs   (    )   (7) MEASUREMENT  505060cm (    )   (8) Made in China   (    ) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

地址:广东省佛山市禅城区江湾一路18号 电话:(0757)82272751 邮编:528000
Copyright © 2019 版权所有:佛山科学技术学院 人文与教育学院
管理
链接: 佛山彩色不锈钢板| 东莞办公家具| 隔音室| 铝合金脚手架| 铝合金脚手架| 佛山钢丝网| 佛山筛网厂| 佛山复印机出租| 佛山复印机出租| 佛山劳务派遣| 屏蔽室| 佛山LED| 佛山筛网| 佛山复印机出租| 深圳办公家具厂家| 佛山LED显示屏| 佛山汽车抵押贷款| 办公屏风厂家| 支持: 永网|